As young men left the farms for the front, domestic food production in Britain and Germany fell. American Civil War, also called War Between the States, four-year war (1861–65) between the United States and 11 Southern states that seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America. The term “civil war” comes from the Latin phrase bellum civile, which translates to “war of or pertaining to civilians,” and was first used to describe the Roman civil wars of the 1st century BCE. (Sherman in Georgia or Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, for example.) Total war has been practiced for centuries, but outright total warfare was first demonstrated in the nineteenth century and flourished with conflicts in the twentieth century. Civilian consumption was high during the early years of the war and inventories both in industry and in consumers' possession were high. The young men shall fight; the married men shall forge arms and transport provisions; the women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; the children shall turn linen into lint; the old men shall betake themselves to the public squares in order to arouse the courage of the warriors and preach hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic. Almost every citizen of the Tàipíng Tiānguó was given military training and conscripted into the army to fight against the imperial forces. Indeed, it is General Erich von Ludendorff during World War I (and in his 1935 book, Der Totale Krieg—The Total War) who first reversed the formula of Clausewitz, calling for total war—the complete mobilization of all resources, including policy and social systems, to the winning of war. Plant and machinery were plentiful and incompletely used, thus it was comparatively easy to substitute unused or partly used machinery for that which was destroyed. An industrialized nation could distinguish and then choose the intensity of warfare that it wished to engage in. The main reason is industrialization. Before the onset of the Second World War, the United Kingdom drew on its First World War experience to prepare legislation that would allow immediate mobilization of the economy for war, should future hostilities break out. eval(ez_write_tag([[728,90],'newworldencyclopedia_org-medrectangle-4','ezslot_0',162,'0','0'])); There are several reasons for the changing concept and recognition of total war in the nineteenth century. Ultimately, humankind must move beyond the age of resolving differences through acts of violence, and establish a world in which war, total or otherwise, no longer exists. James Fearon, a scholar of civil wars at Stanford University, defines a civil war as "a violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies". In Britain, the response was to import more food, which was done despite the German introduction of unrestricted submarine warfare, and to introduce rationing. Huge casualties were expected in bombing raids, and so children were evacuated from London and other cities en masse to the countryside for compulsory billeting in households. noun. German capitulation was hastened in 1918, by the worsening food crisis in Germany. Many are moving back to the pre-Napoleonic ideas of having small professional armies. The earliest modern example of total war was the American Civil War. Under his direction, a threefold increase in armament production occurred and did not reach its peak until late 1944. Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Total_war&oldid=987226, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. To circumvent this, the Allies argued that the major war criminals were captured after the end of the war, so they were not prisoners of war and the Geneva Conventions did not cover them. The Civil War was not the first total war, that is, a war carried past armed combatants to include civilians and private property. Previously, Greek warfare was a limited and ritualized form of conflict. The U.S. Civil War of 1861-1865. c. The Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. d. The present Nigerian civil war, which may have some character as a war of extermination, as the preceding examples did not. This was in every sense to be total war, conducted in Europe, in the Atlantic, and across the Pacific. What does total war mean? Estimates of civilian casualties are approximately 15-20 percent, with deaths due to a combination of armed conflict, famine, and disease. The Civil War may be classified as a “total war,” where total war represents an evolution in the manner in which war up to that point in time had been historically waged. ‘However, another aspect of total war, unrestricted submarine warfare, caused the USA to enter the war and to a degree negate … Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Definition of total war in the Definitions.net dictionary. In July 1943 the full horror of total war was visited on the German city of Hamburg. Armies of hoplites would meet on the battlefield and decide the outcome in a single day. Rationing occurred on the home fronts. For more information please read our FAQ’s here. The Civil War was traumatic for many, and the nation filled with stories o… A factory and its workers in a city would have greater connection with warfare than before. Total war also resulted in the mobilization of the home front. / ˌsɪv. This came to symbolize the USSR's commitment to the Great Patriotic War and demonstrated the government's total war policy. In Admiral Jervis's famous phrase, "I do not say, my Lords, that the French will not come. Posters were used to influence people's decisions about what to eat and what occupations to take (women were used as nurses and in munitions factories), and to change the attitude of support towards the war effort. Total war is a “war that is unrestricted in terms of the weapons used, the territory or combatants involved, or the objectives pursued, especially one in which the laws of war are disregarded.” Civil War Total War-The Myth. noun. Civil war definition, a war between political factions or regions within the same country. I say only they will not come by sea.". This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. However, countries in the process of industrializing and countries that have not yet industrialized are still at risk for total war. This is because it mixed up children with the adults of other classes. Thus, definitions do vary, but most hold to the spirit offered by Roger Chickering: Total war is distinguished by its unprecedented intensity and extent. in accordance with New World Encyclopedia standards. Two industrialized nations committed in total war would affect much of the world. Did the North win by waging total war in the Civil War? The contention of some historians that the Civil War was … Consequently, the greater cost of warfare became evident. Civil wars between a nation's own populations can be regarded as total war, especially if both sides are committed wholly to defeating the other side. They formed the Confederate States of America, also called "the Confederacy. See more. ‘However, another aspect of total war, unrestricted submarine warfare, caused the USA to enter the war and to a degree negate success in the … It did not accept that it was in a total war until Joseph Goebbels' Sportpalast speech of February 18, 1943. The aftermath of the war reshaped the Greek world, left much of the region in poverty, and reduced once influential Athens to a weakened state, from which it never completely recovered. It becomes an ideological state of mind for those involved, and therefore, represents a very dangerous methodology, for the losses are great whether they win or lose. It precludes capitulation, so there is no incentive to cease fighting even when defeat is objectively inevitable. Please tell us where you read or heard it (including the quote, if possible). The ruthless movement of national groupings like the Volga German and later the Crimean Tatars (who Stalin thought might be sympathetic to the Germans) was a development of the conventional scorched earth policy. In total, between 20 and 50 million died in the conflict, making it bloodier than the First World War and possibly bloodier than the Second World War as well, if the upper end figures are accurate. At its core, total war describes a form of conflict that depends on a high intensity and broad extension of violence due to the unrestricted use of weapons … Since that time, therefore, the arena of war has retreated to smaller powers, and major powers have not been involved in a total war scenario. In WWII entire cities … Young men were removed from production jobs and were replaced by women. He formed a new coalition government dominated by Liberals and appointed Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions. “Civil war.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/civil%20war. As countries' natural and capital resources grew, it became clear that some forms of conflict demanded more resources than others. Ulysses S. Grant was the general to initiate the practice in the Civil War. The states of the American South seceded in protest of Lincoln's election as president in 1860, and the nation plunged into a 4-year Civil War (1861-1865). Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. The war was fought because eleven Southern states wanted to leave the United States of America. He is considered one of the first military commanders to deliberately and consciously use total war as a military tactic. 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