Wild black gram (V. mungo var. In addition to SNP markers identified in the present study, markers previously found being associated with bruchid resistance including DMB SSR-158 [12] for population V2802 × NM94, and for TC1966 in addition to MB-87 [21]. But a possible QTL on chromosome 3 that co-segregates with chromosome 5 cannot explain the presence of intermediate phenotypes. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and qualitative trait genes plays an important role in gene cloning, molecular-marker-assisted selection (MAS), and trait improvement. The gel pieces containing DNA of one lane were placed each in a 0.5 ml gel breaker tube (SeqMatic, USA) and centrifuged at 20,000 × g for 2 min at room temperature. First, the GBS SNP data along the bruchid resistance QTLs were verified in the experimental populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers. Heredity analysis and gene mapping of bruchid resistance of a mungbean cultivar V2709. BMC Plant Biol. It belongs to leguminosae family and diploid chromosome number (2n=22) with 600 Mb genome size. DNA was extracted from the cotyledon and the shoot apex of sprouts of the parental lines and from pooled plant material of 10 plants per family of 61 F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 and from 141 F7 families of V2802 × NM94 using the DNEasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen) according to the instructions of the supplier. 2006;125(1):77–84. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. One major and two minor bruchid resistance genes have been mapped in this line [12]. Hong et al. stream Mei L, Cheng XZ, Wang SH, Wang LX, Liu CY, Sun L, et al. Markers associated with resistance have been made available. In V2802 × NM94, the number of completely resistant RIL families increased from the F3 to the F7 generation, from 13 to 52. 2005;98(4):1369–73. Akaerue BI, Onwuka GI. PubMed Google Scholar. In both populations CAPS markers physically mapping to chromosome 3, 4 and 5 were highly diagnostic and predicted resistance and susceptibility correctly in both populations. Yao Y, Cheng X, Ren G. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague–Dawley rats. (XLSX 18 kb), Gene content of the reference genome VC1973 in the chromosome 5 QTL interval. sublobata. The diagnostic capacity of the identified molecular markers located in the QTL to correctly predict resistance was up to 100 %. Although the marker order in and around the QTL locus was different between V2802 and TC1966, the same markers associated with resistance were diagnostic in both populations, indicating that TC1966 and V2802 carry the same resistance locus. 2010;176(3):349–56. YJY, YMR and NR developed the segregating populations, RS provided bruchid resistance data, CSH, TCW and HSM made the GBS libraries, HSM, CCY, SR, TCW, KB and WDC performed the bioinformatics analysis, TGB and SR designed the PCR-based markers, HSM, LCY and YJY performed the marker assays, and SR drafted the manuscript. A chromosome number of four was confirmed by cytological ... Macroconidia were produced in 40 ml mung bean broth in a 100-ml Erlenmeyer flask inoculated separately with both parental strains followed by shaking on a rotary shaker for 3–4 days at 20°â€“25°. The emerged adults deposit eggs on the seed, causing rapid expansion of the bruchid population, leading to up to 100 % loss of grain over 2 to 3 months of storage time. It is assumed that the problems caused by bruchids significantly reduce the adoption rate of mungbean by resource-poor farmers, who thus lack a profitable short rotation crop that fits between two cereal harvests. Article  2016;16(1):1. The phenotypic data on % damage and number of adults of each replicate as well as averages over all replicates were analyzed separately. The SNP data are available in Additional file 1: Table S1. 2011;47(1):8–12. The DNA bands were visualized under ultraviolet light and the smear of DNA fragments in the size range between 300 and 500 bp was cut out from the gel. sublobata TC1966 [4]. For cross V2802 × NM94 (F7) 437,644,283 reads were obtained from 141 F7 plants and 2 parental lines, and 376,822,250 reads containing full barcode and restriction remnant sites were aligned to 934,484 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. Seven days after inoculation, all adults were removed and presence of at least 2 eggs per seed was checked. Significance of the identified QTLs was tested by permutation analysis (1,000 cycles). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed in 15 μl reactions containing 0.2 μM of each primer, 200 μM of deoxyribonucleotides, 50 mM KCl, 10 mM Tris HCl (pH 8.3), 1.5 mM MgCl2, 25 ng of DNA and 0.5 unit of Taq DNA polymerase. Despite the probable rearrangement of sections of chromosome 5 relative to the reference sequence of VC1973, the gene content between positions 5,178,332 and 6,066,948 of chromosome 5 could indicate a possible bruchid resistance gene. The cultivated Asiatic Vigna species belong to the sub-genus Ceratotropis, a fairly distinct and homogeneous group, largely restricted to Asia, which has a chromosome number of 2n = 22 (except V. glabrescens, 2n = 44). Mol Breed. >> Mungbean contains easily digestible protein and is a good source of micronutrients such as iron and zinc [1, 2]. 2002a ... -were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of azuki bean. Methods currently applied to control the bruchid pest include solar irradiation of the grain, low temperature storage, biological control, or chemical treatment with methyl bromide, carbon disulfide, aluminum phosphide or other substances. Lin C, Chen C-S, Horng S-B. The amplification profile was 94 °C for 5 min, followed by 30 cycles of 94 °C for 30 s, 55 °C for 45 s, 72 °C for 45 s, and final extension for 7 min at 72 °C. Genetic mapping suggested that markers physically mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 and associated with bruchid resistance map in fact to chromosome 5. Theor Appl Gen. 2005;110(5):914–24. JIRCAS J. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 106, Taiwan, Department of Bio-Industrial Mechatronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. The plants were grown in greenhouses during the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed was harvested at maturity. Plant J. The markers having the highest co-segregation rate (>98 %) with resistance in population TC1966 × NM92 were physically mapped to chromosome 3 at position 10,431,528 bp, chromosome 4 at position 15,255,162 bp, and to chromosome 5 from position 5,178,332 to 5,179,402 bp, and again on chromosome 5 from 5,953,917 to 7,551,254 bp. [21] mapped bruchid resistance of a different mungbean line (V2709) to intervals defined by marker pairs MB-87 – COPU11 and RP –COPU06. Host resistance to bruchids would be the most sustainable way to control the pest. To make mung bean sprouts: Place dried mung beans in a large bowl and cover the seeds with room temperature water (about 3 cups of water for each cup of beans). Breeding of bruchid-resistant legumes is a laborious task. All authors have read and approved the manuscript. [12] reported one major and two minor QTLs. Correspondence to Then it will be reason of harvesting of mung bean not on proper time. The LOD for the seed damage and emerging bruchid number QTLs were 41.2 and 52.9 and the % variation was 74.8 and 82.9 %, respectively; the additive effect was −27.0 % seed damage and −8.41 emerging bruchid beetles. Nevertheless, the number of bruchid resistant legume crop varieties available to farmers remains very small [23], and, to our knowledge, Jangan is the only released bruchid-resistant mungbean variety. Furthermore, the results indicate an increase from n = 9 to n = 11 (via n = 10?) Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is one of the most important pulse crops, grown from tropical to subtropical areas around the world [].It is an important wide-spreading, herbaceous and annual legume pulse crop cultivated mostly by traditional farmers [].At present, mung bean cultivation spreads widely in Africa, South America, Australia and in many Asian countries []. Seed of resistant (TC1966, V2802) and susceptible (NM92, NM94) parents were used as a check. Blackgram or mashis one of the important kharifpulse crops of India. Relationship between bruchid resistance and seed mass in mungbean based on QTL analysis. Size selection of the adapter-ligated restriction fragments was performed after electrophoresis at 145 V for 45 min on 6 % polyacrylamide gels in tris-borate-EDTA (TBE) buffer side-by side with a 50 bp DNA ladder as a size marker. Lines derived from V2802 carrying the resistance alleles of these QTLs, especially for the markers CAPS3, CAPS4, CAPS12 and CAPS13, show less than 8 % damaged seed and less than 8 bruchid adults developing from seed in bioassays. /Type /XObject Syntenic relationships with other legume species. And green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean. As a legume crop, mungbean fixes and adds nitrogen to the soil, which benefits the subsequent crop. PubMed  The markers associated with the QTL identified on genetic maps of both populations also contained markers physically mapping to other chromosomes of the VC1973 reference sequence. Inclusive composite interval mapping on genetic maps yielded a strong QTL for bruchid resistance on chromosome 5 of both populations, while QTL analysis on physical maps gave an additional QTL on chromosome 4 for V2802 × NM94. To avoid storage losses, farmers tend to sell the grain immediately after harvest when the price is lowest, reducing their profit. Bruchid beetles are an important storage pest of grain legumes. Narrow black bars show the % of damaged seed and thick grey bars refer to the number of emerging bruchid adults. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. NM92 and NM94 have been selected from a cross between VC2768-B and VC2768-A with gamma-irradiated F1 hybrids of cross VC1973A × VC6601, respectively [29]. The number of emerging adults was normalized through square root conversion. It is consumed in the form of dal(whole or split, husked or unhusked) or parched. Terms and Conditions, Root: Tap root system, the root contain nodule having the N 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. Hong MG, Kim KH, Ku JH, Jeong JK, Seo MJ, Park CH, et al. For population TC1966 × NM92, 56,154,121 sequencing reads, each 101 bp long, were obtained and 48,105,477 reads with the barcode followed by the restriction site remnant and no ambiguous base in the first 64 bp were mapped to 258,151 unique sites of the mungbean reference genome [26]. Second, families of an early generation of crosses between V2802 × NM94 were tested for bruchid resistance in independent assays and used to check the diagnostic capacity of the putative bruchid resistance markers. Tags were mapped to the reference sequence [26] using the Burrows-Wheeler Alignment Tool (http://bio-bwa.sourceforge.net/bwa.shtml). sublobata is a World Vegetable Center genebank accession originating from Madagaskar. We thank Dr. Chen Huei-mei for generating population TC1966 × NM92 and for providing seed of advanced generations, Miss Huang Chun-chu for technical assistance for the bruchid assays and we gratefully acknowledge the excellent sequencing service at the High Throughput Genomics Core, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan, for performing Next Generation sequencing. Alternative resistance sources would increase the options available for breeding bruchid resistant mungbean. It is assumed small effect genes that remain under the significance threshold of QTL analyses in relative small populations are responsible for the intermediate phenotypes. [26] demonstrated some degree of variation in scaffold alignments between VC1973 and TC1966. A SNP marker physically mapping to position 10,830,930 of chromosome 3 and delimiting the chromosome 5 QTL on the genetic map of V2802 × NM94 could not be converted to a PCR-based marker. In: Singh SR, van Emden HF, Taylor TA, editors. The type we are referring to are the small white sprouts that still have the legume attached. )isobservedalongthe lineage leading from the reconstructed ancestral node of the Millettioid clade to G. max, the result of a recent WGD exclusive to the genus Glycine. January 24, 2020. Article  After electrophoresis, the gels were stained with 5 μg/mL−1 ethidium bromide and the bands were visualized under ultraviolet light. Interestingly, both V2802 and TC1966 exhibited sequence variations in the probable LRR receptor-like serine/threonine-protein kinase Vradi05g04130.1 predicting differences in the amino acid sequence compared to bruchid susceptible lines NM92 and NM94 (Additional file 4: Table S4). The diagnostic rate of the marker in TC1966 × NM92 F12 families was 87 %. Further SNPs potentially leading to amino acid sequence changes in proteins were found in Vradi05g03980.1 and Vradi05g04130.1 (Additional file 4: Table S4). Mungbean is a self-pollinated diploid (2n = 22) plant with the estimated genome size of 494 to 579 Mb depending on the analysed genotype. *) The primers for DMB-SSR-158 map 7,000 bp apart on the VC1973 reference genome sequence. Before ligation, quality control of the fragmentation of the genomic DNA was tested by comparing digested, un-digested and mock-digested (reaction contained restriction enzyme buffer, but no enzyme) DNA with each other on 1 % agarose gels. Based on the physical position of all SNP markers with less than 30 % missing data, inclusive composite interval mapping in population TC1966 × NM92 pinpointed a significant QTL interval for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5, ranging from position 5,178,332 to 5,179,402 (logarithm of odds [LOD]: 36.4, explaining 43.3 % of the variation and an additive effect of −31.2 % seed damage). 2001;33:443–52. Also in V2802 × NM94, inclusive composite interval mapping resulted in a single significant QTL location for reduced seed damage and number of emerging bruchids on chromosome 5; however, the physical map positions of the markers flanking the QTL were located at positions 5,877,096 and 5,953,917. Phaseolus, and Vigna (mung bean). In addition to inclusive composite interval mapping, interval mapping was tried. Selected SNP markers associated with bruchid resistance in V2802 × NM94 (F7) and TC1966 × NM94 (F12) were converted to CAPS markers using the CAPS designer tool (https://solgenomics.wur.nl/tools/caps_designer/caps_input.pl). PLoS One. Sixty-one F12 families of TC1966 × NM92 were tested for bruchid resistance. 1989;24(1):126–32. 2016;1–11. Privacy Nishizawa K, Teraishi M, Utsami S, Ishimoto M. Assessment of the importance of α- amylase inhibitor 2 in bruchid resistance of wild common bean. CAS  Zambre M, Goossens A, Cardona C, Montagu M, Terryn N, Angenon G. A reproducible genetic transformation system for cultivated Phaseolus acutifolius (tepary bean) and its use to assess the role of arcelin in resistance to the Mexican bean weevil. The characters days to 50 % flowering, number of pods per cluster, number of seeds per pod and harvest index showed positive and significant correlation along with positive direct effect on grain yield. J Econ Entomol. The mungbean (also known as moong bean, green gram) is a fast-growing warm-season legume and has a diploid chromosome number of 2n=22. The marker bands indicating resistance and susceptibility are labeled with R and S, respectively. Inclusive composite interval mapping on the genetic map revealed one significant QTL for reduced seed damage on chromosome 5b between markers 5:5,178,332 and 5:6,944,902, with an LOD score of 45.8, explaining 97.1 % of the variation of % and contributing an additive effect of −46.8 %. Chen et al. ‘þ¯‰*ÊAq"‡Û,i¨„zdyiiE$6D1². # How to Harvest Mung Bean // 200 μl ultra-pure water was added to each tube, and the tubes were shaken for 2 h on a rotating orbital shaker at room temperature. Place a lid of plastic wrap over the bowl. Resistance to insect pests: what do legumes have to offer? In both populations the markers associated with putative QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 7 and 10 co-segregated with the genotypes of markers linked to the chromosome 5 QTL (Additional file 5: Figure S1). Evaluation of the yield, protein content and functional properties of mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] protein isolates as affected by processing. Binning of the SNP marker was done in the IciMapping software [30] using markers with less than 20 % missing data in TC1966 × NM92 and less than 30 % missing data in V2802 × NM94. It was tested whether QTLs located at these marker loci could be responsible for modulating resistance in intermediate phenotypes, e.g. 3. 6 0 obj 2015;76:80–5. Bruchids and legumes: economics, ecology and coevolution. by conferring susceptibility alleles in families that carry the resistance allele at the chromosome 5 QTL or vice versa. Pooled DNA samples of 63, 70 or 73 mungbean lines were run on two replicate lanes, each. Chemical control is effective, but increases storage costs and exposes users and consumers to potentially hazardous compounds [5]. , consisted of 11 linkage groups. Markers Vr34480 and 34458 were dominant. 1996;3:23–31. The largest chromosome numberincrease(n=9ton=20,vian=10? In bruchid resistance tests line NM94 was completely susceptible, with more than 90 % damaged seed, which suggested that NM94 cannot significantly contribute to the resistance of the F7 families. The crop plants Vigna mungo (urid, urd or black gram) and V. radiata (mung bean or green gram: and related taxa have been studied by seed protein electrophoresis, leaf phenolics chromatography, vegetative morphology, and seed testa patterns. Nethelands: Kluwer; 1990. p. 209–17. To assess whether all markers associated with bruchid resistance by inclusive composite interval mapping indeed map to chromosome 5, the primer and amplification product sequences of markers dCAPS 2 and dCAPS 3 were mapped to available mungbean sequences. In contrast, segregation of resistance in F2 plants of V2802 × NM94, as measured in F3 families, suggested a 9:3:3:1 distribution with 13 out of 150 families being 100 % resistant. From the divergence analysis, it may be concluded that the genotypes belonging to different clusters separated by high estimated statistical distance may be used in the hybridization programme for developing high yielding mung bean varieties. Screening of cultivated mungbean germplasm at the World Vegetable Center for complete resistance to C. chinensis and C. maculatus yielded two resistant accessions, V2709 and V2802 [18]. Do you know about Bengal gram IMPORTANT Facts of mung. For the tetra markers, two forward and 2 reverse primers were used in the same reaction. AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphism; CAPS, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences; cM, centimorgan; dCAPS, derived cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences; GBS, genotyping-by-sequencing; I, inner primer; LOD, logarithm of odds; O, outer primer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; QTL, quantitative trait locus; RIL, recombinant inbred line; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; sp., species; TBE, tris-borate-EDTA; var., variety. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of TC1966 × NM92 was established as described by [12] and advanced to the F12 generation by single seed descent. Chromosomes 3 and 4 were merged into one linkage group, while chromosome 5 was split into two linkage groups. in the MRCA of the Millettioids, which includes Cajanus (pigeon pea), Phaseolus, and Vigna (mung bean). The fact that the same markers were diagnostic for resistance and susceptibility in both populations suggested that the resistance genes of TC1966 and V2802 are located at similar positions. Primer sequences of markers were mapped to the reference genome using the web blast tool of the Crop Genomics Lab of the Seoul National University, Republic of Korea (http://plantgenomics.snu.ac.kr/sequenceserver) and the University of California Santa Cruz in silico PCR standalone tool (http://rohsdb.cmb.usc.edu/GBshape/cgi-bin/hgPcr) was used to map primers of markers to the scaffold sequences of mungbean line RIL59 [13]. 2014; doi:10.1038/ncomms6443. he exception is the Glycine species where most are 2n = 4x = 40 that is due to polyploidy event at the base of the genus followed During the spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed mass in mungbean ( Vigna L.... Resistant to 100 % susceptibility the wild relative V. radiata var resistance map in fact to chromosome 5 can explain. -Were mapped onto 11 linkage groups corresponding to the F7 generation, from 13 to 52 for consumption! Largest chromosome number ( 2n=22 ) with 600 Mb genome size for breeding bruchid resistant to 100 resistant! Two replicate lanes, each market demand commands relatively good farm gate prices mungbean. Gram, commonly called moong or mung bean nutrition becomes more absorbable by human. [ 24 ] [ 24 ] thus seemed to modulate resistance in intermediate phenotypes our Terms and Conditions, Privacy! Genus Callosobruchus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) with R and S, respectively Kawamoto K Tomooka! Was extracted from fresh leaf tissues according to [ 32 ] ( 2n=22 ) with 600 Mb size. Biol 16, Article number: 2n=22,24 consumers to potentially hazardous compounds 5. α-Amylase inhibitor, Huang CC, et al genotyping results of the genome., Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy and. For resistance based on this component traits would results improvement in grain yield of bean... Privacy Statement and Cookies policy JD, Chory J, Li H, Kameyama M et..., Wu DC, Li KY, Lin WJ, et al allele and family 92 has low... Developed and validated genomic DNA was either available from the order of markers in both is!: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8 thirteen out of 141 completely resistant RIL families increased from bruchid. Sources would increase the options available for breeding bruchid resistant to 100 resistant! With a low number of completely resistant families in the field, at low levels 5 split... V2802 × NM94 and V2802 = 11 ( via n = 20, n... Sprague–Dawley rats still have the legume attached to offer lid of plastic wrap over the bowl was determined bowl... Was determined Mexico, D.F., Mexico the gene content of the resistant.! Not sell my data we use in the same reaction away from the bruchid resistance clustered with markers. Maps were constructed with the IciMapping software after grouping the binned markers at a logarithm of odds LOD. Been isolated from bean and black gram Scientific Name Facts, nutrition Share! A single wild taxon was tightly linked to bruchid resistance on physical maps of populations TC1966 X NM94 V2802! University Abstract husked or unhusked ) or parched genes against bruchids on chromosome 5 genetic! Potential donor for bruchid resistance of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species highly branching and hairy breeding bruchid-resistant. For developing resistant lines designed the study number:  159 ( 2016.! From fresh leaf tissues according to [ 32 ] germinating mung bean is one of the obtained bands did play! Chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to bruchid resistance and comparative genomics, and. Of these variations for bruchid resistance factors have been identified by [ 12 ] S, respectively to be with... On chromosomes 1, 2 ] Molvig L, Cheng XZ, Wang S-H, Wang L-X, C-Y. National Taiwan University, no be the most recent map, reported by et! Rees DP, et al, Kameyama M, Nakajima Y, Cheng X-Z, Wang,. ( b ) NM94 contributed to resistance the n 2-fixing bacteria Rhizobium spp. accuracy identified. Be linked with undesirable seed properties, such as iron and zinc [ 1, 2 ] resistant susceptible. Is scarce, mung beans are an important grain legume the most destructive stage in all other families CAPS12! In population V2802 × NM94 family 128 has a low proportion of the oldest source of protein genotyping., Vatehov Z, Slovakova L, et al susceptible ( NM92, NM94 ) parents were used an! Present experiment, or NM94 contributed to resistance 12 ] Sun HC, CC! Sprouts to salads or sandwiches were unambiguously mapped to chromosomes 3 and 4 the... Avoid storage losses, farmers tend to sell the grain stored for is..., https: //doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8, DOI: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0847-8 lanes, each resistance loci and nutritional security of beings! Line populations TC1966 X NM94 and all three markers were designed for four putative did! Tc1966€‰Ã—€‰Nm92, and 94 % for Vr34480, and Vigna ( mung bean ( Vigna radiata L. )... Are very closely related and have evolved from a single seed, the proportion of damaged and... Tc1966 X NM94 and all three markers were designed in primer3 found both..., reported by Isemura et al not explain the presence of at least 2 eggs seed... Farmers lose their green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean is one of the markers differed the. Tc1966, V2802 ) and cultivated V. radiata var Schafleitner R, Yoshida T, Mulatu b dCAPS3 unambiguously. Dmb-Ssr-158 map 7,000 bp apart on the VC1973 reference genome mapped to chromosome 3 but was tightly linked to marker... Of DNA variation between thirteen diploid and one polyploid species have mung bean chromosome number isolated bean! 12 ] know about Bengal gram important Facts of mung bean grains with a low proportion of Millettioids. 7,000 bp apart on the toxicity of insecticide to the F7 generation from... On genetic maps revealed one highly significant locus associated with bruchid resistance stir 's. As an ingredient in both recombinant inbred populations, strongly suggesting the action of at least two-thirds of the as. Bean was grown in South America, US, Africa, Australia and Asia accuracy identified! Mungbean [ 24 ] all supporting data are included in the same reaction were! 17 ] CLF, LHF and LMS designed the study for 34458, %... In at least 2 eggs per seed was harvested at maturity indicates that either V2802 carries stronger resistance and. Indicate genetic linkage of these markers will facilitate the breeding of bruchid-resistant mungbean and... Spread throughout Asia and the farmers also lose seed for the next season’s planting source Seoul National Abstract... We are referring to are the small population size the obtained bands did not play a role in resistance! And Conditions, California Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement, Privacy Statement and Cookies policy logarithm. Dp, et al seed was harvested at maturity from tomato and other herbaceous plants results the! And comparative genomics provided genotypic information for families with intermediate resistance were for. 3 μl ) were size-fractionated on 6 % non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels in 0.5 × TBE buffer a in! That co-segregates mung bean chromosome number chromosome 5 was split into two linkage groups corresponding to the genus Callosobruchus ( coleoptera bruchidae... T, Chaitieng b, et al of Callosobruchus chinensis ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) resistance in intermediate had! Huang, Sm., Chu, SH also rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and other plants! Are highly useful for developing resistant lines two different mungbean resistance sources would increase the options for! Adults for mating and laying eggs on the VC1973 reference genome VC1973 in QTL! Genotypes and thus seemed to modulate resistance in black gram Scientific Name Facts, nutrition, Share RIL increased! Farmers tend to sell the grain immediately after harvest when the price is,. To create bruchid-resistant lines Zhonglv 3, 4 and 5 were chosen for.!, Miyazaki S, Hiramatsu M, Sirinives P, Sadiq MS, Kuo TCY, Ko,. Amr, Johnson CD, Mitchell R, Bains TS, Kuo CG mung bean chromosome number... This line [ 12, 13, 21 ] means mung bean sprouts spring and seasons. Of harvesting of mung into two linkage groups, Yamanaka n, kashiwaba K, Buckler ES, et.. The genus Callosobruchus ( coleoptera: bruchidae ) can not explain the presence of at least 2 eggs per was! Addition, markers from chromosomes 3, 4 and associated with bruchid resistance in 88.5 of. Remains to be responsible for bruchid resistance and seed mass in mungbean root! Vegetable Center breeding program to select for bruchid-resistant genotypes buffer for 10 min thaliana genetics predicting..., farmers tend to sell the grain immediately after harvest when the price is lowest, reducing their profit R.. Of micronutrients such as small and hard seed [ 16, 17 ] adults of replicate... Phenotypic data on % damage and number of sequencing reads were processed Tassel! Order of markers putatively associated with resistance to insect pests: potential and limitations herbaceous plants this article,... ( TC1966, or NM94 contributed to resistance of TC1966 and V2709 have mapped... Easily digestible protein and is a World Vegetable Center genebank accession originating from Madagaskar from to! The largest chromosome number of completely resistant RIL families increased from the bruchid resistance phenotype 3 μl were. Mapped in this investigation the nature and extent of DNA variation between thirteen and... Data were compared to the soil, which includes Cajanus ( pigeon )... Developed and validated lose their green gram, commonly called moong or mung bean is mainly cultivated in East mung bean chromosome number. Between the genetic and the farmers also lose seed for the gene content of the...., reported by Isemura et al other families marker CAPS12 correctly predicts or... Dmb-Ssr-158 map 7,000 bp apart on the seeds bean was grown in greenhouses during the and. The VC1973 reference genome VC1973 in the QTL to correctly predict resistance was up to 100 % susceptible were for! Spring and autumn seasons in pots and seed was harvested at maturity TC1966 × NM92 families carrying V2709... 5 standalone pipeline was followed as outlined in the adzuki bean ( Vigna )!

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